NATIVE: either indigenous or endemic.Note: The definitions of terms and their usages given below are in the strict scientific sense. You may be more familiar with slightly different or broader interpretations of these terms. However, the scientific usage, as you will see, is more consistent and precise which provides clearer communication.
INTRODUCED: either Polynesian or recent.
Explain how an introduced plant becomes naturalized.
These terms are better understood when used in reference to a particular geographical site. Our reference will always be the Hawaiian Islands unless stated otherwise.
Occurring naturally. Developed or migrated to the site without human help or intervention.
Brought to site intentionally or accidentally with human help or activity.
A - INDIGENOUS : found naturally at others sites, not restricted.
|Examples: Beach Naupaka
Pohuehue, or beach morning glory.
B - ENDEMIC: Found naturally only at the site and not elsewhere in the world.
|Examples: 'Ohi'a lehua and Silversword.|
A - POLYNESIAN INTRODUCTIONS: Brought by original Polynesian voyagers to the islands. Many have been here 1,000 or more years. Botanists agree to 26 plus species. We will focus on 24 since 3 are in the same genus. (See pg. 17 of Sohmer and Gustafson text.)
Remember, these are NOT NATIVE or INDIGENOUS plants in terms of the strict scientific sense. They are introduced plants.
POLYNESIAN INTRODUCED PLANTS
FOR MORE DESCRIPTIONS AND VISUALS ABOUT THESE INTERESTING PLANTS, CLICK ON THE BLUE UNDERLINED PLANT NAMES.
*The information given about the medicinal uses of the plants listed below are from descriptions of Hawaiian accounts. This information is not complete or safe enough to be used without further direction from experienced sources.
Scientific Names Hawaiian/Common Names
- Aleurites moluccana
- Alocasia macrorrhiza
- Artocarpus altilis
- Broussonetia papyrifera
- Calophyllum inophyllum
- Cocos nucifera
- Colocasia esculenta
- Cordia subcordata
- Cordyline fruticosa
- Curcuma longa
- Dioscorea alata
- Hibiscus tiliaceus
- Ipomoea batatas
- Lagenaria siceraria
- Morinda citrifolia
- Musa acuminata hybrids
- Piper methysticum
- Saccharum officinarum
- Schizostachyum glaucifolium
- Syzygium malaccense
- Tacca leontopetaloides
- Tephrosia purpurea
- Thespesia populnea
- Zingiber zerumbet
- kukui, candlenut
- 'ulu, breadfruit
- wauke, paper mulberry
- niu, coconut
- ki or ti
- 'õlena, turmeric
- uhi, yam
- 'uala, sweet potato
- ipu, gourd
- mai'a, banana
- 'awa,, kava
- 'ohe Hawaiian bamboo
- 'ohi'a 'ai, mountain apple
- pia, arrowroot
- 'auhuhu, fish poison plant
- 'awapuhi, shampoo ginger
B - RECENT INTRODUCTIONS: Plants brought to the islands starting at contact with the western world, from Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 to present time.1. Many of these plants are called exotics, especially when referring to introduced cultivated plants like orchids, anthuriums, gingers, and heliconias.
2. Also this group includes plants called aliens or weeds, which often have a negative impact on the environment, like haole koa(Leucaena leucocephala), paperbark (Melaleuca quiquenervia), Christmas berry (Schinus terebinthifolus), banana poka (Passiflora Mollissima) and scarlet-fruited or ivy gourd(Coccinia grandis).
A. Native plants.IV. Naturalized plants are:1. There are about 1,000+ species today.B. Introduced Plants:
2. Of these, about 900+ (89%) are endemic species, the highest percentage of a native flora in the world!About 100 (10%) of these species are indigenous.1. Polynesian Introduced species number 24+ different species. (See list in text on page 17 of Sohmer and Gustafson.)
2. Recent introductionsNumbers in the 1000's! Dr. Lyon, during the early part of the 1900, claimed to have introduced 10,000 plants by seeds or other means. One educated guess is 8,000 to 13,000 species.
A. Introduced plants become established in area of native plants without human assistance, then reproduce and spread.V. Flora: Two meaningsExamples are Kukui, Koster's Curse, Christmas berry, fire tree and Banana poka.
Kukui in Flower
B. They are often detrimental to native plants by replacing them or crowding them out.They number about 900 species or 44% of the plants found in the wild of Hawaii today!
A. Flora can refer to all plants of a region (like Hawaii), listed by species and considered as a whole.
B. Flora may refer to a reference book. For example, a flora of Hawaii would list and give descriptions of all native and naturalized plants of that region.
The Manual of Flowering Plants of Hawaii is a two volume reference set by Wagner, Herbst and Sohmer, available in most libraries in Hawaii.
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